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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
along a line at right angles to and passing through the center of the glenoid cavity, forming a considerable angle, called the subscapular angle; this gives greater strength to the body of the bone by its arched form, while the summit of the arch serves to support the spine and acromion.
  The dorsal surface (Fig. 203) is arched from above downward, and is subdivided into two unequal parts by the spine; the portion above the spine is called the supraspinatous fossa, and that below it the infraspinatous fossa.
  The supraspinatous fossa, the smaller of the two, is concave, smooth, and broader at its vertebral than at its humeral end; its medial two-thirds give origin to the Supraspinatus.
  The infraspinatous fossa is much larger than the preceding; toward its vertebral margin a shallow concavity is seen at its upper part; its center presents a prominent convexity, while near the axillary border is a deep groove which runs from the upper toward the lower part. The medial two-thirds of the fossa give origin to the Infraspinatus; the lateral third is covered by this muscle.
  The dorsal surface is marked near the axillary border by an elevated ridge, which runs from the lower part of the glenoid cavity, downward and backward to the vertebral border, about 2.5 cm. above the inferior angle. The ridge serves for the attachment of a fibrous septum, which separates the Infraspinatus from the Teres major and Teres minor. The surface between the ridge and the axillary border is narrow in the upper two-thirds of its extent, and is crossed near its center by a groove for the passage of the scapular circumflex vessels; it affords attachment to the Teres minor. Its lower third presents a broader, somewhat triangular surface, which gives origin to the Teres major, and over which the Latissimus dorsi glides; frequently the latter muscle takes origin by a few fibers from this part. The broad and narrow portions above alluded to are separated by an oblique line, which runs from the axillary border, downward and backward, to meet the elevated ridge: to it is attached a fibrous septum which separates the Teres muscles from each other.

The Spine (spina scapulæ).—The spine is a prominent plate of bone, which crosses obliquely the medial four-fifths of the dorsal surface of the scapula at its upper part, and separates the supra- from the infraspinatous fossa. It begins at the vertical border by a smooth, triangular area over which the tendon of insertion of the lower part of the Trapezius glides, and, gradually becoming more elevated, ends in the acromion, which overhangs the shoulder-joint. The spine is triangular, and flattened from above downward, its apex being directed toward the vertebral border. It presents two surfaces and three borders. Its superior surface is concave; it assits in forming the supraspinatous fossa, and gives origin to part of the Supraspinatus. Its inferior surface forms part of the infraspinatous fossa, gives origin to a portion of the Infraspinatus, and presents near its center the orifice of a nutrient canal. Of the three borders, the anterior is attached to the dorsal surface of the bone; the posterior, or crest of the spine, is broad, and presents two lips and an intervening rough interval. The Trapezius is attached to the superior lip, and a rough tubercle is generally seen on that portion of the spine which receives the tendon of insertion of the lower part of this muscle. The Deltoideus is attached to the whole length of the inferior lip. The interval between the lips is subcutaneous and partly covered by the tendinous fibers of these muscles. The lateral border, or base, the shortest of the three, is slightly concave; its edge, thick and round, is continuous above with the under surface of the acromion, below with the neck of the scapula. It forms the medial boundary of the great scapular notch, which serves to connect the supra- and infraspinatous fossæ.

The Acromion.—The acromion forms the summit of the shoulder, and is a large, somewhat triangular or oblong process, flattened from behind forward, projecting at first lateralward, and then curving forward and upward, so as to overhang the

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