Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
medial part of the circumference of each orbit. Below the nasal bones and between the maxillæ is the anterior aperture of the nose, pyriform in shape, with the narrow end directed upward. Laterally this opening is bounded by sharp margins, to which the lateral and alar cartilages of the nose are attached; below, the margins are thicker and curve medialward and forward to end in the anterior nasal spine. On looking into the nasal cavity, the bony septum which separates the nasal cavities presents, in front, a large triangular deficiency; this, in the fresh state, is filled up by the cartilage of the nasal septum; on the lateral wall of each nasal cavity the anterior part of the inferior nasal concha is visible. Below and lateral to the anterior nasal aperture are the anterior surfaces of the maxillæ, each perforated, near the lower margin of the orbit, by the infraorbital foramen for the passage of the infraorbital nerve and vessels. Below and medial to this foramen is the canine eminence separating the incisive from the canine fossa. Beneath these fossæ are the alveolar processes of the maxillæ containing the upper teeth, which overlap the teeth of the mandible in front. The zygomatic bone on either side forms the prominence of the cheek, the lower and lateral portion of the orbital cavity, and the anterior part of the zygomatic arch. It articulates medially with the maxilla, behind with the zygomatic process of the temporal, and above with the great wing of the sphenoid and the zygomatic process of the frontal; it is perforated by the zygomaticofacial foramen for the passage of the zygomaticofacial nerve. On the body of the mandible is a median ridge, indicating the position of the symphysis; this ridge divides below to enclose the mental protuberance, the lateral angles of which constitute the mental tubercles. Below the incisor teeth