Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
spines, on either side of the middle line, is an oval depression for the attachment of the anterior belly of the Digastricus. Extending upward and backward on either side from the lower part of the symphysis is the mylohyoid line, which gives origin to the Mylohyoideus; the posterior part of this line, near the alveolar margin, gives attachment to a small part of the Constrictor pharyngis superior, and to the pterygomandibular raphé. Above the anterior part of this line is a smooth triangular area against which the sublingual gland rests, and below the hinder part, an oval fossa for the submaxillary gland.
Borders.The superior or alveolar border, wider behind than in front, is hollowed into cavities, for the reception of the teeth; these cavities are sixteen in number, and vary in depth and size according to the teeth which they contain. To the outer lip of the superior border, on either side, the Buccinator is attached as far forward as the first molar tooth. The inferior border is rounded, longer than the superior, and thicker in front than behind; at the point where it joins the lower border of the ramus a shallow groove; for the external maxillary artery, may be present.
The Ramus (ramus mandibulæ; perpendicular portion).The ramus is quadrilateral in shape, and has two surfaces, four borders, and two processes.
Surfaces.The lateral surface(Fig. 176) is flat and marked by oblique ridges at its lower part; it gives attachment throughout nearly the whole of its extent to the Masseter. The medial surface(Fig. 177) presents about its center the oblique mandibular foramen, for the entrance of the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve. The margin of this opening is irregular; it presents in front a prominent ridge, surmounted by a sharp spine, the lingula mandibulæ, which gives attachment to the sphenomandibular ligament; at its lower and back part is a notch from which the mylohyoid groove runs obliquely downward and forward, and lodges the mylohyoid vessels and nerve. Behind this groove is a rough surface, for the insertion of the Pterygoideus internus. The mandibular canal runs obliquely downward and forward in the ramus, and then horizontally forward in the body, where it is placed under the alveoli and communicates with them by small openings. On arriving at the incisor teeth, it turns back to communicate with the mental foramen, giving off two small canals which run to the cavities containing the incisor teeth.