Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
are easily defined, although their heads do not form prominences; the plantar surfaces are obscured by muscles. The phalanges in their whole extent are readily palpable.
Articulations.The hip-joint is deeply seated and cannot be palpated.
The interval between the tibia and femur can always be easily felt; if the knee-joint be extended this interval is on a higher level than the apex of the patella, but if the joint be slightly flexed it is directly behind the apex. When the knee is semiflexed, the medial borders of the patella and of the medial condyle of the femur, and the upper border of the medial condyle of the tibia, bound a triangular depressed area which indicates the position of the joint.
The ankle-joint can be felt on either side of the Extensor tendons, and during extension of the joint the superior articular surface of the talus presents below the anterior border of the lower end of the tibia.
Muscles.Of the muscles of the thigh, those of the anterior femoral region (Fig. 1238) contribute largely to surface form. The Tensor fasciæ latæ produces a broad elevation immediately below the anterior part of the iliac crest and behind the anterior superior iliac spine; from its lower border a groove caused by the iliotibial band extends downward to the lateral side of the knee-joint. The upper portion of Sartorius constitutes the lateral boundary of the femoral triangle, and, when the muscle is in action, forms a prominent oblique ridge which is continued below into a flattened plane and then gradually merges into a general fulness on the medial side of the knee-joint. When the Sartorius is not in action, a depression exists between the Quadriceps femoris and the Adductors, and extends obliquely downward and medialward from the apex of the femoral triangle to the side of the knee. In the angle formed by the divergence of Sartorius and Tensor fasciæ lataæ, just below the anterior superior iliac spine, the Rectus femoris appears, and in a muscular subject its borders can be clearly defined when the muscle is in action. The Vastus lateralis forms a long flattened plane traversed by the groove of the iliotibial band. The Vastus medialis gives rise to a considerable prominence on the medial side of the lower half of the thigh; this prominence increases toward the knee and ends somewhat abruptly with a full curved outline. The Vastus intermedius is completely hidden. The Adductores cannot be differentiated from one another, with the exception of the upper tendon of Adductor longus and the lower tendon of Adductor magnus. When the Adductor longus is in action its