Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
Between the two arches of either side is the palatine tonsil, above which is the small supratonsillar recess; the position of the tonsil corresponds to the angle of the mandible. When the mouth is opened widely, a tense bandthe pterygomandibular raphécan be seen and felt lateral to the glossopalatine arch. Its lower end is attached to the mandible behind the last molar tooth, and immediately below and in front of this the lingual nerve can be felt; the upper end of the ligament can be traced to the pterygoid hamulus. About 1 cm. in front of the hamulus and 1 cm. medial to the last molar tooth of the maxilla is the greater palatine foramen through which the descending palatine vessels and the anterior palatine nerve emerge. Behind the last molar tooth of the maxilla the coronoid process of the mandible is palpable.
FIG. 1203 Front of nasal part of pharynx, as seen with the laryngoscope. (See enlarged image)
By tilting the head well back a portion of the posterior pharyngeal wall, corresponding to the site of the second and third cervical vertebræ, can be seen through the isthmus faucium. On introducing the finger the anterior surfaces of the upper cervical vertebræ can be felt through the thin muscular wall of the pharynx; if the finger be hooked round the palatine velum, the choanæ can be distinguished in front, and the pharyngeal ostium of the auditory tube on either side. The level of the choanæ is that of the atlas, while the palatine velum is opposite the body of the axis.