Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
2. Surface Markings of Special Regions of the Head and Neck
The Cranium.Scalp.The soft parts covering the upper surface of the skull form the scalp and comprise the following layers (Fig. 1196): (1) skin, (2) subcutaneous tissue, (3) Occipitalis frontalis and galea aponeurotica, (4) subaponeurotic tissue, (5) pericranium. The subcutaneous tissue consists of a close mesh-work of fibers, the meshes of which contain fatty tissue; the fibers bind the skin and galea aponeurotica firmly together, so that when the Occipitalis or the Frontalis is in action the skin moves with the aponeurosis. The subaponeurotic tissue, which intervenes between the galea aponeurotica and the pericranium, is much looser in texture, and permits the movement of the aponeurosis over the underlying bones.