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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 

XII. Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings
 
 
1. Surface Anatomy of the Head and Neck
 


FIG. 1193– Side view of head, showing surface relations of bones. (See enlarged image)


Bones (Fig. 1193).—Various bony surfaces and prominences on the skull can be easily identified by palpation. The external occipital protuberance is situated behind, in the middle line, at the junction of the skin of the neck with that of the head. The superior nuchal line runs lateralward from it on either side, while extending downward from it is the median nuchal crest, situated deeply at the bottom of the nuchal furrow. Above the superior nuchal lines the vault of the cranium is thinly covered with soft structures, so that the form of this part of the head is almost that of the upper portion of the occipital, the parietal, and the frontal bones. The superior nuchal line can be followed lateralward to the mastoid portion of the temporal bone, from which the mastoid process projects downward and forward behind the ear. The anterior and posterior borders, the apex, and the external surface of this process are all available for superficial examination. The anterior border lies immediately behind the concha, and the apex is on a level

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