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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
  The extremity is formed by the glans penis, the expanded anterior end of the corpus cavernosum urethræ. It is separated from the body by the constricted neck, which is overhung by the corona glandis.
  The integument covering the penis is remarkable for its thinness, its dark color, its looseness of connection with the deeper parts of the organ, and its absence of adipose tissue. At the root of the penis it is continuous with that over the pubes, scrotum, and perineum. At the neck it leaves the surface and becomes folded upon itself to form the prepuce or foreskin. The internal layer of the prepuce is directly continuous, along the line of the neck, with the integument over the glans. Immediately behind the external urethral orifice it forms a small secondary reduplication, attached along the bottom of a depressed median raphé, which extends from the meatus to the neck; this fold is termed the frenulum of the prepuce. The integument covering the glans is continuous with the urethral mucous membrane at the orifice; it is devoid of haris, but projecting from its free surface are a number of small, highly sensitive papillæ. Scattered glands on the corona, neck, glans and inner layer of the prepuce, the preputial glands, have been described. 1 They secrete a sebaceous material of very peculiar odor, which probably contains casein, and readily undergoes decomposition; when mixed with discarded epithelial cells it is called smegma.
  The prepuce covers a variable amount of the glans, and is separated from it by a potential sac—the preputial sac—which presents two shallow fossæ, one on either side of the frenulum.

Structure of the Penis.—From the internal surface of the fibrous envelope of the corpora cavernosa penis, as well as from the sides of the septum, numerous bands or cords are given off, which cross the interior of these corpora cavernosa in all directions, subdividing them into a number of separate compartments, and giving the entire structure a spongy appearance (Fig. 1157). These bands and cords are called trabeculæ, and consist of white fibrous tissue, elastic fibers, and plain muscular fibers. In them are contained numerous arteries and nerves. The component fibers which form the trabeculæ are larger and stronger around the circumference than at the centers of the corpora cavernosa; they are also thicker behind than in front. The interspaces (cavernous spaces), on the contrary, are larger at the center than at the circumference, their long diameters being directed transversely. They are filled with blood, and are lined by a layer of flattened cells similar to the endothelial lining of veins.
  The fibrous envelope of the corpus cavernosum urethræ is thinner, whiter in color, and more elastic than that of the corpora cavernosa penis. The trabeculæ are more delicate, nearly uniform in size, and the meshes between them smaller than in the corpora cavernosa penis: their long diameters, for the most part, corresponding with that of the penis. The external envelope or outer coat of the corpus cavernosum urethræ is formed partly of unstriped muscular fibers, and a layer of the same tissue immediately surrounds the canal of the urethra.


FIG. 1157– Section of corpus cavernosum penis in a non-distended condition. (Cadiat.) a. Trabeculæ of connective tissue, with many elastic fibers and bundles of plain muscular tissue, some of which are cut across (c). b. Blood sinuses. (See enlarged image)


Vessels and Nerves.—The arteries bringing the blood to the cavernous spaces are the deep arteries of the penis and branches from the dorsal arteries of the penis, which perforate the fibrous capsule, along the upper surface, especially near the forepart of the organ. On entering the
Note 1.  Stieda (Comptes-rendus du XII Congrés International de Médecine, Moscow, 1897) asserts that glands are never found on the corona glandis, and that what have hitherto been mistaken for glands are really large papillæ. [back]

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