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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
two ducts unite and open by a common orifice upon the summit of the duodenal papilla, situated at the medial side of the descending portion of the duodenum, a little below its middle and about 7 to 10 cm. from the pylorus (Fig. 1100). The short tube formed by the union of the two ducts is dilated into an ampulla, the ampulla of Vater.

Structure.—The coats of the large biliary ducts are an external or fibrous, and an internal or mucous. The fibrous coat is composed of strong fibroareolar tissue, with a certain amount of muscular tissue, arranged, for the most part, in a circular manner around the duct. The mucous coat is continuous with the lining membrane of the hepatic ducts and gall-bladder, and also with that of the duodenum; and, like the mucous membrane of these structures, its epithelium is of the columnar variety. It is provided with numerous mucous glands, which are lobulated and open by minute orifices scattered irregularly in the larger ducts.
 
2j. The Pancreas
 
  The pancreas (Figs. 1097, 1098) is a compound racemose gland, analogous in its structures to the salivary glands, though softer and less compactly arranged than those organs. Its secretion, the pancreatic juice, carried by the pancreatic duct to the duodenum, is an important digestive fluid. In addition the pancreas has an important internal secretion, probably elaborated by the cells of Langerhans, which is taken up by the blood stream and is concerned with sugar metabolism. It is long and irregularly prismatic in shape; its right extremity, being broad, is called the head, and is connected to the main portion of the organ, or body, by a slight constriction, the neck; while its left extremity gradually tapers to form the tail. It is situated transversely across the posterior wall of the abdomen, at the back of the epigastric and left hypochondriac regions. Its length varies from 12.5 to 15 cm., and its weight from 60 to 100 gm.


FIG. 1097– Transverse section through the middle of the first lumbar vertebra, showing the relations of the pancreas. (Braune.) (See enlarged image)


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