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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
ligament. The left triangular ligament (ligamentum triangulare sinistrum) is a fold of some considerable size, which connects the posterior part of the upper surface of the left lobe to the diaphragm; its anterior layer is continuous with the left layer of the falciform ligament.
  The round ligament (ligamentum teres hepatis) is a fibrous cord resulting from the obliteration of the umbilical vein. It ascends from the umbilicus, in the free margin of the falciform ligament, to the umbilical notch of the liver, from which it may be traced in its proper fossa on the inferior surface of the liver to the porta, where it becomes continuous with the ligamentum venosum.

Fixation of the Liver.—Several factors contribute to maintain the liver in place. The attachments of the liver to the diaphragm by the coronary and triangular ligaments and the intervening connective tissue of the uncovered area, together with the intimate connection of the inferior vena cava by the connective tissue and hepatic veins would hold up the posterior part of the liver. Some support is derived from the pressure of the abdominal viscera which completely fill the abdomen whose muscular walls are always in a state of tonic contraction. The superior surface of the liver is perfectly fitted to the under surface of the diaphragm so that atmospheric pressure alone would be enough to hold it against the diaphragm. The latter in turn is held up by the negative pressure in the thorax. The lax falciform ligament certainly gives no support though it probably limits lateral displacement.


FIG. 1088– Liver with the septum transversum. Human embryo 3 mm. long. (After model and figure by His.) (See enlarged image)


Development.—The liver arises in the form of a diverticulum or hollow outgrowth from the ventral surface of that portion of the gut which afterward becomes the descending part of the duodenum (Fig. 1088). This diverticulum is lined by entoderm, and grows upward and forward into the septum transversum, a mass of mesoderm between the vitelline duct and the pericardial cavity, and there gives off two solid buds of cells which represent the right and the left lobes of the liver. The solid buds of cells grow into columns or cylinders, termed the hepatic cylinders, which branch and anastomose to form a close meshwork. This network invades the vitelline and umbilical veins, and breaks up these vessels into a series of capillary-like vessels termed sinusoids (Minot), which ramify in the meshes of the cellular

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