Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
and is separated from the left lobe on its upper surface by the falciform ligament; on its under and posterior surfaces by the left sagittal fossa; and in front by the umbilical notch. It is of a somewhat quadrilateral form, its under and posterior surfaces being marked by three fossæ: the porta and the fossæ for the gall-bladder and inferior vena cava, which separate its left part into two smaller lobes; the quadrate and caudate lobes. The impressions on the right lobe have already been described.
The quadrate lobe (lobus quadratus) is situated on the under surface of the right lobe, bounded in front by the anterior margin of the liver; behind by the porta; on the right, by the fossa for the gall-bladder; and on the left, by the fossa for the umbilical vein. It is oblong in shape, its antero-posterior diameter being greater than its transverse.
The caudate lobe (lobus caudatus; Spigelian lobe) is situated upon the posterior surface of the right lobe of the liver, opposite the tenth and eleventh thoracic vertebræ. It is bounded, below, by the porta; on the right, by the fossa for the inferior vena cava; and, on the left, by the fossa for the ductus venosus. It looks backward, being nearly vertical in position; it is longer from above downward than from side to side, and is somewhat concave in the transverse direction. The caudate process is a small elevation of the hepatic substance extending obliquely lateralward, from the lower extremity of the caudate lobe to the under surface of the right lobe. It is situated behind the porta, and separates the fossa for the gall-bladder from the commencement of the fossa for the inferior vena cava.
The left lobe (lobus hepatis sinister) is smaller and more flattened than the right. It is situated in the epigastric and left hypochondriac regions. Its upper surface is slightly convex and is moulded on to the diaphragm; its under surface presents the gastric impression and omental tuberosity, already referred to page 1189.
Ligaments.The liver is connected to the under surface of the diaphragm and to the anterior wall of the abdomen by five ligaments; four of thesethe falciform, the coronary, and the two lateralare peritoneal folds; the fifth, the round ligament, is a fibrous cord, the obliterated umbilical vein. The liver is also attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach by the hepatogastric and to the duodenum by the hepatoduodenal ligament (see page 1157).
The falciform ligament (ligamentum falciforme hepatis) is a broad and thin antero-posterior peritoneal fold, falciform in shape, its base being directed downward and backward, its apex upward and backward. It is situated in an antero-posterior plane, but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum behind the right Rectus and the diaphragm, while the other is directed backward and is in contact with the left lobe of the liver. It is attached by its left margin to the under surface of the diaphragm, and the posterior surface of the sheath of the right Rectus as low down as the umbilicus; by its right margin it extends from the notch on the anterior margin of the liver, as far back as the posterior surface. It is composed of two layers of peritoneum closely united together. Its base or free edge contains between its layers the round ligament and the parumbilical veins.
The coronary ligament (ligamentum coronarium hepatis) consists of an upper and a lower layer. The upper layer is formed by the reflection of the peritoneum from the upper margin of the bare area of the liver to the under surface of the diaphragm, and is continuous with the right layer of the falciform ligament. The lower layer is reflected from the lower margin of the bare area on to the right kidney and suprarenal gland, and is termed the hepatorenal ligament.
The triangular ligaments (lateral ligaments) are two in number, right and left. The right triangular ligament (ligamentum triangulare dextrum) is situated at the right extremity of the bare area, and is a small fold which passes to the diaphragm, being formed by the apposition of the upper and lower layers of the coronary