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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
from the under surface by the line of reflection of the lower layer of the coronary ligament. The central part of the posterior surface presents a deep concavity which is moulded on the vertebral column and crura of the diaphragm. To the right of this the inferior vena cava is lodged in its fossa between the uncovered area and the caudate lobe. Close to the right of this fossa and immediately above the renal impression is a small triangular depressed area, the suprarenal impression, the greater part of which is devoid of peritoneum; it lodges the right suprarenal gland. To the left of the inferior vena cava is the caudate lobe, which lies between the fossa for the vena cava and the fossa for the ductus venosus. Its lower end projects and forms part of the posterior boundary of the porta; on the right, it is connected with the under surface of the right lobe of the liver by theee caudate process, and on the left it presents an elevation, the papillary process. Its posterior surface rests upon the diaphragm, being separated from it merely by the upper part of the omental bursa. To the left of the fossa for the ductus venosus is a groove in which lies the antrum cardiacum of the esophagus.
  The anterior border (margo anterior) is thin and sharp, and marked opposite the attachment of the falciform ligament by a deep notch, the umbilical notch, and opposite the cartilage of the ninth rib by a second notch for the fundus of the gall-bladder. In adult males this border generally corresponds with the lower margin of the thorax in the right mammillary line; but in women and children it usually projects below the ribs.
  The left extremity of the liver is thin and flattened from above downward.

Fossæ.—The left sagittal fossa (fossa sagittalis sinistra; longitudinal fissure) is a deep groove, which extends from the notch on the anterior margin of the liver to the upper border of the posterior surface of the organ; it separates the right and left lobes. The porta joins it, at right angles, and divides it into two parts. The anterior part, or fossa for the umbilical vein, lodges the umbilical vein in the fetus, and its remains (the ligamentum teres) in the adult; it lies between the quadrate lobe and the left lobe of the liver, and is often partially bridged over by a prolongation of the hepatic substance, the pons hepatis. The posterior part, or fossa for the ductus venosus, lies between the left lobe and the caudate lobe; it lodges in the fetus, the ductus venosus, and in the adult a slender fibrous cord, the ligamentum venosum, the obliterated remains of that vessel.
  The porta or transverse fissure (porta hepatis) is a short but deep fissure, about 5 cm. long, extending transversely across the under surface of the left portion of the right lobe, nearer its posterior surface than its anterior border. It joins nearly at right angles with the left sagittal fossa, and separates the quadrate lobe in front from the caudate lobe and process behind. It transmits the portal vein, the hepatic artery and nerves, and the hepatic duct and lymphatics. The hepatic duct lies in front and to the right, the hepatic artery to the left, and the portal vein behind and between the duct and artery.
  The fossa for the gall-bladder (fossa vesicæ felleæ) is a shallow, oblong fossa, placed on the under surface of the right lobe, parallel with the left sagittal fossa. It extends from the anterior free margin of the liver, which is notched by it, to the right extremity of the porta.
  The fossa for the inferior vena cava (fossa venæ cavæ) is a short deep depression, occasionally a complete canal in consequence of the substance of the liver surrounding the vena cava. It extends obliquely upward on the posterior surface between the caudate lobe and the bare area of the liver, and is separated from the porta by the caudate process. On slitting open the inferior vena cava the orifices of the hepatic veins will be seen opening into this vessel at its upper part, after perforating the floor of this fossa.

Lobes.—The right lobe (lobus hepatis dexter) is much larger than the left; the proportion between them being as six to one. It occupies the right hypochondrium,

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