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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
into its two branches, the right and left pulmonary veins, the phrenic nerves, and some bronchial lymph glands.
  The Posterior Mediastinum (Figs. 968, 969) is an irregular triangular space running parallel with the vertebral column; it is bounded in front by the pericardium above, and by the posterior surface of the diaphragm below, behind by the vertebral column from the lower border of the fourth to the twelfth thoracic vertebra, and on either side by the mediastinal pleura. It contains the thoracic part of the descending aorta, the azygos and the two hemiazygos veins, the vagus and splanchnic nerves, the esophagus, the thoracic duct, and some lymph glands.
 
1e. The Lungs
 
  
(Pulmones)


The lungs are the essential organs of respiration; they are two in number, placed one on either side within the thorax, and separated from each other by the heart and other contents of the mediastinum (Fig. 970). The substance of the lung is of a light, porous, spongy texture; it floats in water, and crepitates when handled, owing to the presence of air in the alveoli; it is also highly elastic; hence the retracted state of these organs when they are removed from the closed cavity of the thorax. The surface is smooth, shining, and marked out into numerous polyhedral areas, indicating the lobules of the organ: each of these areas is crossed by numerous lighter lines.


FIG. 970– Front view of heart and lungs. (See enlarged image)

  At birth the lungs are pinkish white in color; in adult life the color is a dark slaty gray, mottled in patches; and as age advances, this mottling assumes a black color. The coloring matter consists of granules of a carbonaceous substance deposited in the areolar tissue near the surface of the organ. It increases in quantity

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