Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
processes, which are named the sacral cornua, and are connected to the cornua of the coccyx. Lateral to the articular processes are the four posterior sacral foramina; they are smaller in size and less regular in form than the anterior, and transmit the posterior divisions of the sacral nerves. On the lateral side of the posterior sacral foramina is a series of tubercles, which represent the transverse processes of the sacral vertebræ, and form the lateral crests of the sacrum. The transverse tubercles of the first sacral vertebra are large and very distinct; they, together with the transverse tubercles of the second vertebra, give attachment to the horizontal parts of the posterior sacroiliac ligaments; those of the third vertebra give attachment to the oblique fasciculi of the posterior sacroiliac ligaments; and those of the fourth and fifth to the sacrotuberous ligaments.
Lateral Surface.The lateral surface is broad above, but narrowed into a thin edge below. The upper half presents in front an ear-shaped surface, the auricular surface, covered with cartilage in the fresh state, for articulation with the ilium. Behind it is a rough surface, the sacral tuberosity, on which are three deep and uneven impressions, for the attachment of the posterior sacroiliac ligament. The lower half is thin, and ends in a projection called the inferior lateral angle; medial to this angle is a notch, which is converted into a foramen by the transverse process of the first piece of the coccyx, and transmits the anterior division of the fifth sacral nerve. The thin lower half of the lateral surface gives attachment to the sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments, to some fibers of the Glutæus maximus behind, and to the Coccygeus in front.
Base (basis oss. sacri).The base of the sacrum, which is broad and expanded, is directed upward and forward. In the middle is a large oval articular surface,