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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
As the nerve fibers pass through the lamina cribrosa scleræ they lose their medullary sheaths and are continued onward through the choroid and retina as simple axis-cylinders. When they reach the internal surface of the retina they radiate from their point of entrance over this surface grouped in bundles, and in many places arranged in plexuses. Most of the fibers are centripetal, and are the direct continuations of the axis-cylinder processes of the cells of the ganglionic layer, but a few of them are centrifugal and ramify in the inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers, where they end in enlarged extremities.
  2. The ganglionic layer consists of a single layer of large ganglion cells, except in the macula lutea, where there are several strata. The cells are somewhat flask-shaped; the rounded internal surface of each resting on the stratum opticum, and sending off an axon which is prolonged into it. From the opposite end numerous dendrites extend into the inner plexiform layer, where they branch and form flattened arborizations at different levels. The ganglion cells vary much in size, and the dendrites of the smaller ones as a rule arborize in the inner plexiform layer as soon as they enter it; while those of the larger cells ramify close to the inner nuclear layer.


FIG. 881– Section of retina. (Magnified.) (See enlarged image)

  3. The inner plexiform layer is made up of a dense reticulum of minute fibrils formed by the interlacement of the dendrites of the ganglion cells with those of the cells of the inner nuclear layer; within this reticulum a few branched spongioblasts are sometimes imbedded.


FIG. 882– Plan of retinal neurons. (After Cajal.) (See enlarged image)

  4. The inner nuclear layer or layer of inner granules is made up of a number of closely packed cells, of which there are three varieties, viz.: bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells.
  The bipolar cells, by far the most numerous, are round or oval in shape, and each is prolonged into an inner and an outer process. They are divisible into rod bipolars and cone bipolars. The

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